Misaq-e-Medina or Medina Charter: The world’s earliest known written constitution

The Medina Charter, written and promulgated by Prophet Muhammad for the multi-religious ten thousand-strong citizens of the city-state of Medina in 622 A.D is truly a remarkable political-constitutional document. The claim made by Professor M. Hamidullah that it was the first written constitution in the world is not without basis. Aristotle’s Constitution of Athens, written on papyrus, discovered by an American missionary in Egypt in 1890 and published in 1891, was not a constitution. It was an account of the constitution of the citystate of Athens. Other legal writings on…